To increase the amount of grape harvest, it must be cut in the spring. Pruning should start at the beginning of March, when the air temperature reaches + 5 degrees.
- Main features of cropping
- How to properly prune grapes in spring
- How to form a young bush correctly
- Types of grape bush formation
- Pruning grapes for fruiting
Main features of cropping
First of all, four buds should be left on each knot. This is the so-called winter safety net. On the fruit arrow, about twelve buds are left in order to make large inflorescences from them. In the process of pruning, you need to ensure that all cuts are on the inside of the shoots of the bush. Thus, the bush will grow faster from the inside. In order not to hinder the sap flow of grape branches, the cuts should be smooth. In this case, pruning the grapes helps to shape the bush correctly.
The main advantage of spring pruning of grapes is that during the winter period the cut sites are corked and at the beginning of the growing season the grapes "do not cry".
Also, cut bushes are easier to cover for the winter. This agrotechnical method promotes better growth and fruiting of grapes. If you do not prune, an extra number of shoots will appear on the bush, which will thicken the bush and close the inflorescences, preventing them from pollinating. As a result of inadequate nutrition of the bush, small berries with loose clusters will be tied. Most often, only young grape bushes are pruned in the spring.
How to properly prune grapes in spring
In the process of removing annual shoots, pruning should take place at the very base, without the formation of hemp. Shoots should be cut smooth and even. This ensures quick and easy wound healing, and the absence of hemp prevents the formation of fatty shoots. For pruning grape bushes, a well-honed pruner is used, the emphasis of which must be positioned against the part of the shoot to be removed.
All cuts and wounds should be left on the inside of the vine. This is due to the fact that internal sections always grow faster. Also, when pruning, care must be taken to ensure that closely spaced wounds do not merge. Basically, only well-developed and fruitful branches need to be pruned, otherwise the yield may not be high. But you should not use too thick overdeveloped shoots, the thickness of which exceeds 12 mm.
The thicker the shoots are, the longer they need to be cut. And thin shoots are cut to a short length. When trimming replacement knots, select only those on which the first peephole is on the outside. A fruiting vine should be pruned into 10-11 eyes, which will allow the extreme bud to develop well. In order to prevent the death of the lower bud of a fertile vine, the cut must be made above the diaphragm of the branch.
How to form a young bush correctly
When arranging vineyards, the following materials are used: vegetative seedlings, cuttings, cuttings, seedlings from the school. The main task when growing grapes is to obtain strong shoots, the thickness of which should be at least 6mm. You need to form a grape bush a year after planting it. When forming, you should adhere to some rules. When creating boles and cordon sleeves, you need to use the most mature vine.
Video on how to form a grape bush and how to prune it:
When forming low boles, first of all, the required height is set. The shoulders of the cordons are created according to the same principle. If the bush has been formed over several years, then during annual pruning it should be raised to a certain height so that the wounds from the cuts are constantly at the same level. Thus, the full movement of all nutrients is ensured.
Types of grape bush formation
Stamp alignment. It is mainly used for non-covering grape varieties. At the onset of the first spring after planting, the grape bush must be cut off by one or two eyes, while eliminating all the shoots. Throughout the summer, it is advisable to grow two massive shoots. In the second spring, only one, but fully formed shoot is preserved, which needs to be shortened by two more eyes.
It is from this shoot that the stem will be created, and the second shoot will be used as a backup, when the main shoot dies off. With the onset of the third spring, the shoot-stem is shortened to a certain level (depending on desire). The rest of the shoots should be cut, leaving only the top two, from which the sleeves will form.
In the fourth year, in the springtime, the upper sleeves are shortened, based on the characteristics of a certain variety. Also, throughout the summer, massive shoots are built up, which should be located at a distance of 20 cm from each other. In the fifth spring, you should cut off all the shoots that have been created over the past summer. In this case, you should leave two eyes, on which you need to form several fruit links. At the onset of the sixth spring, it is necessary to form fruit links, while cutting off the lower shoot by several eyes.
Stamp-free formation. It is used in the cultivation of covering grape varieties. A seedling planted in spring is not pruned. All shoots that have grown on it bend to the ground and hide for the whole winter. When spring comes, all shoots must be cut off. For the full formation of a grape bush, such actions must be carried out for three years.
Pruning grapes for fruiting
When pruning for fruitfulness, it is necessary to prune the fruit vine right up to the replacement knot. In the future, instead of the old vine, two new ones will grow on this twig. The vine, which is closer to the sleeve, needs to be cut into two buds. In turn, the second vine should be cut long. Throughout the summer, a new fruit ring will grow on the knot.
When pruning for fruitfulness, you should always remember that only the lower vine is always pruned, which is considered a replacement knot. Even if not two, but three or even four shoots grow on a knot, two of the strongest ones will later come out of them, which in the future will be able to please with their excellent harvest.